DO SAN (Tul)
Do‐San Is the pseudonym of the patriot Ahn Chang‐Ho (1876‐1938). The 24 movements represent his entire life which he devoted to furthering education in Korea and its independence movement.
Do‐San commemorates the pseudonym of the great patriot and educator Ahn Chang‐ho (November 9, 1876 ‐ March 10, 1938).
Ahn Chang‐Ho was committed to preserving Korea's educational system during the Japanese occupation. He was well known for his sincerity and lack of pretence in dealing with others. A farmer's son, he abandoned traditional learning in his home town, Pyongyang, and studied for two years at a missionary school operated by the Salvation Army. He became a Christian and felt he couldn't hate the Japanese as men. He decided to seek a source of national strength and cultivate it to regain national independence and prosperity. In 1894, at the age of 18, Ahn became a member of the Tongnip Hyophoe "Independence Association," which promoted independence from Japan and worked to reform domestic affairs and reduce dependence upon foreign countries.
In 1899, Ahn established the Cheomjin ("gradual progress") School in Pyongyang, the first modern and co‐educational private school ever established by a Korean. The name of the school seemed to reflect his political philosophy of evolutionary social changes through education. Ahn, Chang‐Ho was one of the first Koreans to emigrate to the United States. He arrived in America in September 1902 with his newlywed wife, Lee Hae‐ Ryon, and, as the steamship approached Hawaii, Ahn resolved to stand tall above the sea of turmoil existing at that time in Korea, and decided to call himself "Do‐San" (meaning "Island Mountain"). While living in San Francisco, he organised the San Francisco Social Meeting on September 23, 1903, and initiated a social reform movement that was desperately needed by the Korean American society. An accomplished orator and leader at the age of 24, Ahn guided his countrymen to form a respectable community for Koreans in the United States. He organised a society that became the Kungminhoe (Korean National Association), which inspired Korean immigrants to hope for national independence.
In 1906, following the Russo‐Japanese war, Ahn learned of the Japanese "Protectorate Treaty" that had been enforced on Korea, which gave the Japanese the legal right to occupy the country, and returned home. He organised an underground independence group in Pyongahn‐do called Shinmin‐Hoe (New Peoples' Association), an organisation dedicated to promoting Korean independence through the cultivation of nationalism in education, business and culture.
In 1908 the Shinmin‐Hoe founded the Tae‐Song ("large achievement") School in Pyongyang. This school was designed to provide Koreans with an education based on national spirit. Ahn, Chang‐Ho worked a ceramic kiln as a commercial enterprise to raise funds for the publication of books for young people. The political environment of the time, however, was not conducive to the founding of such a school; in fact the Japanese were in the process of eradicating education for Koreans, in order to ensure illiteracy and essentially create a class of slave workers.
With Yi Kap, Yang Ki‐tak and Shin Chae‐Ho, Ahn embarked on a lecture tour of Korea, warning of the national crisis being incurred by the Japanese and urging the people to unite and resist the Japanese. Ahn repeatedly told Japanese leaders that Japan would profit more with Korea as a friend rather than an enemy.
By 1910 the Shinmin‐Hoe had around 300 members and represented a threat to the Japanese occupation. The Japanese were actively crushing these types of organizations, and the Shinmin‐Hoe quickly became a target of their efforts. In December of 1910 the Japanese Governor General, Terauchi, was scheduled to attend the dedicating ceremony for the new railway bridge over the Amnok River. The Japanese used this situation to pretend to uncover a plot to assassinate Terauchi on the way to this ceremony. All of the Shinmin‐Hoe leaders and 600 innocent Christians were arrested. Under severe torture, which led to the deaths of many, 105 Koreans were indicted and brought to trial. During the trial, the defendants were adamant about their innocence. The world community felt that the alleged plot was such an obvious fabrication that political pressure grew and most of the defendants had to be set free. (By 1913, only six of the original defendants had received prison sentences.) By this time, the Japanese had become fairly successful at detecting and destroying underground resistance groups. However, they were not successful in quelling the desire for freedom and self‐government among the Korean people. The resistance groups moved further underground and guerrilla raids from the independence groups in Manchuria and Siberia increased.
The Japanese stepped up their assault on the Korean school system and other nationalistic movements. After the passage of an Education Act in 1911 the Japanese began to close all Korean schools.
In 1913, the Tae‐Song School was forced to close, and, by 1914, virtually all Korean schools had been shut down and all Koreans were attending Japanese schools. In order to do so, they had to abandon using their Korean language and their Korean birth‐names, and instead use the Japanese language and Japanese names. The Koreans had the same conditions imposed on them in order to purchase food from stores. They were taught that they were the under‐class whose purpose was to serve their superior Japanese masters.
This all but completed the Japanese campaign of cultural genocide. Chances of any part of the Korean culture surviving rested in the hands of the few dedicated patriots working in exile outside of Korea.
When Japanese Governor‐General Hiro‐Bumi Ito was assassinated by Ahn, Joong‐Gun, Japan tightened its grip on Korean leaders. Ahn, Chang‐Ho was forced to go into exile in Manchuria, then Siberia, Russia, Europe, and finally the United States. In 1912, Ahn was elected chairman of the Korean National People's Association, which had emerged as an organisation for Koreans living abroad, and played an active role in negotiations with the US government. Around this time he also established Hungsadan, a secret voluntary group of ardent patriots. These and other organisations pressured President Woodrow Wilson into speaking on behalf of Korean autonomy at the Paris peace talks, and, in 1918, a representative of the Korean exiles was indeed sent to these talks.
In 1919, when the Yi Dynasty was forcefully absorbed into the Japanese Empire, Ahn started underground activities that focused on regaining Korean independence. He returned to Shanghai in April 1919 along with Rhee Syngman and Kim Ku, where Rhee became acting premier of a provisional government. They drew up a Democratic Constitution that provided for a freely elected president and legislature. This document also established the freedom of the press, speech, religion, and assembly. An independent judiciary was established and the previous class system of nobility was abolished. After trying in vain to narrow the differences of opinion between the leaders in Shanghai, he resigned from the post after two years.
Finally, on March 1 1919, the provisional government in Shanghai formally declared its independence from Japan, and called for massive general resistance from the people of Korea. During the ensuing resistance demonstrations the Japanese police opened fire on unarmed Korean crowds, killing thousands. Many thousands more were arrested and tortured. Even after this, Ahn, Chang‐Ho continued to work on in the United States on behalf of his country of birth. He created a village in Manchuria for wandering Korean refugees, and in 1922 led a commission which compiled all historical materials relating to Korea, particularly concerning the Japanese occupation.
In 1932 Ahn, Chang‐Ho was arrested by the Japanese following a bombing carried out by Yun, Pong‐Gil (although Ahn himself was not involved in the incident) and he was placed in prison in Taejon. After briefly being released he was arrested again by the Japanese police and stayed in prison until 1938 when, in poor health, he was allowed to leave the prison on bail. He died in a hospital in Seoul on 10 March 1938.
Ready Posture – Parallel Ready Stance
1. Move the left foot to B, forming a left walking stance toward B while executing a high side block to B with the left outer forearm.
2. Execute a middle punch to B with the right fist while maintaining a left walking stance toward B.
3. Move the left foot on line AB, and then turn clockwise to form a right walking stance toward A while executing a high side block to A with the right outer forearm.
4. Execute a middle punch to A with the left fist while maintaining a right walking stance toward A.
5. Move the left foot to D, forming a right L‐stance toward D while executing a middle guarding block to D with a knife‐hand.
6. Move the right foot to D forming a right walking stance toward D while executing a middle thrust to D with the right straight fingertip.
7. Twist the right knife‐hand together with the body counter clockwise until its palm faces downward and then move the left foot to D, turning counter clockwise to form a left walking stance toward D while executing a high side strike to D with the left back fist.
8. Move the right foot to D forming a right walking stance toward D while executing a high side strike to D with the right back fist.
9. Move the left foot to E, turning counter clockwise to form a left walking stance toward E while executing a high side block to E with the left outer forearm.
10. Execute a middle punch to E with the right fist while maintaining a left walking stance toward E.
11. Move the left foot on line EF, and then turn clockwise to form a right walking stance toward F while executing a high side block to F with the right outer forearm.
12. Execute a middle punch to F with the left fist while maintaining a right walking stance toward F.
13. Move the left foot to CE forming a left walking stance toward CE, at the same time executing a high wedging block to CE with the outer forearm.
14. Execute a middle front snap kick to CE with the right foot, keeping the position of the hands as they were in 13.
15. Lower the right foot to CE forming a right walking stance toward CE while executing a middle punch to CE with the right fist.
16. Execute a middle punch to CE with the left fist while maintaining a right walking stance toward CE. Perform 15 and 16 in a fast motion.
17. Move the right foot to CF forming a right walking stance toward CF while executing a high wedging block to CF with the outer forearm.
18. Execute a middle front snap kick to CF with the left foot, keeping the position of the hands as they were in 17.
19. Lower the left foot to CF forming a left walking stance toward CF while executing a middle punch to CF with the left fist.
20. Execute a middle punch to CF with the right fist while maintaining a left walking stance toward CF. Perform 19 and 20 in a fast motion.
21. Move the left foot to C forming a left walking stance toward C, at the same time executing a rising block with the left forearm.
22. Move the right foot to C forming a right walking stance toward C while executing a rising block with the right forearm.
23. Move the left foot to B, turning counter clockwise to form a sitting stance toward D while executing a middle side strike to B with the left knife‐hand.
24. Bring the left foot to the right foot and then move the right foot to A forming a sitting stance toward D while executing a middle side strike to A with the right knife‐hand.
END: Bring the right foot back to a ready posture.